The concept of pelvis It refers to the body zone of mammalian animals (including at human being ) that is formed with coxal bones , he coccyx and the sacrum . The pelvis, located in the lower region in the case of the human body, houses several organs of the reproductive system, the urinary bladder and the last section of the digestive tract.
With funnel shape, it is possible to divide the pelvis into major and minor. The major pelvis houses the organs of the abdomen while the minor pelvis It presents the urinary bladder, genital viscera, rectum and anus.
Coxal bones, sacrum and coccyx make up the so-called bone pelvis . The region which is responsible for the articulation of the lower limbs, instead, it is known as pelvic waist .
It is important to note that the pelvis of the man it presents several differences with respect to the pelvis of the woman . In the female gender, the pelvis has a greater opening, is shorter and has smaller walls.
When a woman suffers from a pain in the pelvis, on the other hand, it may be a symptom of endometriosis, ovarian cyst, an infection or an ectopic pregnancy, among other disorders of Health .
The posture and movement of the pelvis are very important in various dances and dances . The famous Belly Dancing , also known as Arabic dance , is based largely on the swing that the dancer performs with the pelvis and on the agitation that applies to that area.
The pelvic fracture is considered as gravity extreme since it can compromise the mobility of the hip, although it does not usually affect the stability of the pelvic ring. It usually takes place in patients who have suffered a violent trauma to the lateral face and the greater trochanter. This type of fracture can cause damage to the pubic or anterior pillar, to the ischial or posterior, to both or to the bottom of the cup (cavity of a bone into which the head of another enters).
All cases of pelvic fracture compromise the cotyloid cavity; This may occur to a lesser degree (when the cup undergoes a fissure) or completely (if the femoral head partially or completely sinks and enters the pelvic cavity). Depending on the degree of fracture extension, joint damage varies, which may include the displacement of fragments of bone .
To determine the magnitude of the pelvic fracture and the consequent hurt To articulate a conventional radiography is not enough, since in the resulting image it can be difficult to see the movement of the ischial and pubic fragments. For this reason, two special projections become necessary:
* alar : an x-ray that is done by rotating the pelvis at 45 ° towards the injured part, so that the iliac wing is located parallel to the plate and reveals the pillar pubic with full extent of fracture feature;
* obturator or ischiatic : an x-ray is performed having rotated the pelvis at 45 ° in the opposite direction to the previous case, so that the ischial abutment, the obturator hole and the fracture are completely visible.
Pelvic fractures are usually complicated by massive hemorrhages due to vascular damage of the obturator and iliac vessels. In addition, containing and reducing displaced fragments is very difficult. Following the engagement of the cup, it is very common for the hip to suffer from degenerative osteoarthritis ; This happens with certainty when the bone damage of the joints is considerable and very often the mobility of the area is completely lost. The results of surgical interventions are uncertain since they are high practices risk .