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The term of late Latin decēnus came to our language as ten . This is called a set consisting of ten elements or units . For example: "The explosion that was caused by a gas leak caused a dozen wounded", "The municipal government announced a project to restore a dozen historic buildings in the old town", "Last night with Claudio we ate a dozen sandwiches while watching the game".

Yes one person Enter a bakery and ask a dozen baguettes , the baker will give you ten units of these breads. Similarly, if someone enters a stationery or bookstore and asks the seller a dozen envelopes , the worker will deliver ten envelopes.

The idea in ten, sometimes it is used so imprecise or by way of reference . The driver of a newscast can indicate on TV that a terrorist attack left as a balance more than a dozen fatalities . The expression refers to the fact that it has already been confirmed that at least eleven people lost their lives. However, exactly the death toll is still unknown.

A mother, on the other hand, can tell her son: "I asked you a dozen times to tidy up your room and you haven't done it yet!". Possibly the woman He has not given his son the order ten times, or he may not even remember the number of times he requested the same. But the use of the term ten allows to emphasize that it is a repeated request on many occasions.

In the field of mathematics, more specifically in the branch of arithmetic (also known as number theory) We also talk about ten to indicate the digit that in a number in decimal system represents the amounts equal to or greater than ten and less than one hundred. If we take the number 324 , for example, we can say that the 3 represents the hundred, the 2 , the ten, and the 4 It is unity.

One of the advantages of using these concepts is the possibility of group very high quantities and express them more clearly . If we could simply make use of the concept of unity to represent the numbers, in the previous case we should say that we are facing three hundred and twenty-four units; This would be very difficult to manipulate to perform certain calculations, both simple and complex, and that is why we should break it down into different sets.

When making a sum , we can face the need to pass a group of ten units to the tens column to move forward, and then it may happen that we should do the same but starting from the tens towards the hundreds, and so on until there are no more remains.

Let's look at a practical example to understand this mechanics and its benefits when adding two numbers:

* to solve the operation 74 + 58 , we start with the column of the units. 4 + 8 is equal to 12 , a number that can be broken down into a ten and two units ;

* in the space destined to result therefore we write a 2 and we "pass" the 1 to the tens column, where we must add it to the 7 and at 8 ;

* once again, the result in this column exceeds the allowed limit (single digit), since it is 13 . In this case, we must interpret the number as one hundred and three tens , so we place a 3 in the result and we carry the 1 to column next, where it will remain intact since the two addends were less than 100 . For this reason, we can write it directly in the total result of the sum, which is 132 .

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