From Latin res publica ("Public thing" ), the republic is a form of organization of the State . In the republic, the highest authority performs functions for a given time and is elected by citizens, either directly or through Parliament (whose members are also elected by the population).
By extension, the Republic is known as the State that is organized in this way and not all regimes monarchists . Another use of the term refers to the political body of the society and to the public cause (for example: "The corruption of ministers threatens the republic", "The republic cannot withstand the abuse of its officials").
The main channel of citizen participation in the republic is the vote . Elections must be free and the vote secret. In this way, citizens can exercise their participation without pressure or conditioning.
It should be noted that many States that, throughout the history , they called themselves republics, did not allow their citizens to participate in elections or respected human rights. This is the case of Totalitarian states as China or the old Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.R.S.S. ). Something similar happens with the Islamic republics , which are based on the Koran and not in the Illustration (therefore, they are based on faith and religious beliefs).
Other fundamental principles for the functioning of the republic are, in addition to the active political participation of citizens, the division of powers, the realization of justice and the search for the common good.
The arduous road to democracy
Although there is no form of government that can be considered ideal, it is important that within the systematic possibilities that are at our disposal we opt for one that contemplates citizens rights. However, in order for a country to manage and establish a government that does not fluctuate and that preserves the peace and normal functioning of the various organisms in the territory, it must first pass through innumerable mismatches and difficulties.
As it happened in many other countries, it took many years in Spain to get a democratic regime of this kind; such is the case that two Republics succeeded and both were broken by a Coup. Until finally one was established that still remains, despite the many problems that this entails.
The First Republic in Spain It was proclaimed on February 11, 1873 and lasted until 1874 and was characterized by being extremely unstable, due to intense discord between the various sides that wanted to take over the power of the country. It should be noted that, since it was constituted and until the following 11 months, it had four presidents; This project collapsed when on January 3, 1874 the coup d'etat took place that would put an end to the Republic.
Then for about 50 more years the Monarchy was installed in the peninsular territory, until a new revolution emerged that would lead to the Second Spanish Republic , on April 14, 1931 that would culminate in a new coup d'etat, after which Francisco Franco installed the dictatorship and would be followed by many years of death and violence in Spain.
After such turbulent years, of situations of extreme misery and deprivation of all freedoms, and when Franco died, his successor, King Juan Carlos I swore to comply with what was agreed in the Principles of the National Movement and promoted the Referendum for the Political Reform that started the Spanish Transition until consolidating later, the parlamentary democracy.