Before entering fully into the definition of synthesis reaction, it is necessary that we proceed to know the etymological origin of the two keywords that shape it:
-Reaction derives from Latin and is the result of the sum of two components: the prefix "re-", which means "backward", and "actio". This second word, in turn, emanates from the verb "agere", which is synonymous with "doing", and from the suffix "-tio", which is used to indicate "action and effect".
-Synthesis, on the other hand, has its origin in Greek. And it comes from the noun "synthesis", which comes to mean "composition that is formed from the sum of the parts." That name is obtained by adding the prefix “syn-”, which can be translated as “with”, and “thesis”, which is synonymous with “conclusion”.
A chemical reaction It is a change that a substance experiences. From this reaction, the substance in question loses properties and acquires different ones, modifying its structure and chemical bonds.
There are different types of chemical reactions. A synthesis reaction it is the one that leads to two different substances (that is, two reagents ) combine to give rise to a single product . It can be said, therefore, that two simple elements, through a synthesis reaction, bind and create a complex compound.
The formula A synthesis reaction is as follows: X + Y = XY . As it is possible to warn, X and AND They are two different chemicals that combine to give rise to a new product (XY ).
The historical figure that is considered the first one that gave real and conscious form to the synthesis reactions is the German chemist Friedrich Wholer (1800 - 1882), who achieved that result from his work with the organic substance known as urea.
A synthesis reaction between a nonmetal e hydrogen allows obtaining a hydracid , to cite a possibility. Similarly, a synthesis reaction that combines a nonmetal with H2O generates a oxyacid , while the combination of a basic oxide with H2O results in a hydroxide .
What happens in a synthesis reaction is that, when developed, the chemical bonds that existed between the reagents are broken and formed new links , resulting in a different compound.
Thanks to a synthesis reaction, therefore, products whose properties they will be more marked than the original ones or even have nonexistent reagent properties.
In addition to all of the above, it should be known that synthesis reactions can be classified into two large groups: partial synthesis and total synthesis. The first are those that take place when the reagents are compound substances or a mixture between compounds and elementals. The totals, meanwhile, are those that are undertaken with only elementary substances.
The reverse reaction to the synthesis is known as decomposition reaction : from a single reagent, two or more products are obtained.