Before proceeding to determine the meaning of the word orography, it is necessary to make clear its etymological origin. In this sense, we would have to expose that it is a word that comes from Greek, since it is made up of three elements of that language:
• The noun “golds”, which can be translated as “mountain”.
• The verb “graphein”, which is synonymous with “record”.
• The suffix "-ia", which is used to indicate "quality".
The orography is the part of the geography physics that is dedicated to the mountain description . Through its cartographic representations (maps ), it is possible to visualize and study the relief of a region .
The orographic studies They are important in the planning of various infrastructure works. When it comes to extending the railroad tracks or drawing a new road, it is essential to know the orographic characteristics of the ground to adapt to the climbs, slopes, etc.
There are various agencies in different countries that are responsible for making known all the data related to the orography of a specific place. Thus, for example, in Spain, the entity assigned to this work is the National Atlas of Spain that provides information about the main mountain peaks, both current and historical records.
The farming and the mining they also appeal to the orography, since the analysis of the relief helps to know the characteristics of the I usually and from the subsoil. For a correct use of these resources, therefore, orographic work is needed.
The notion of orography is used, on the other hand, to name the set of elevations that exist in a particular region. For example: “The orography of Nepal is very important”, “We live in a city with a poor orography, almost without undulations”, “If you want to practice mountaineering, you have to know the orography of the destination you visit”, “When they told me about the orography of this country, I never thought about encountering such a magnificent landscape”.
It can be said that the orography affects the weather of each territory. The mountains influence rainfall as the upward movement of the air (unavoidable when it meets the orographic obstacle that the mountain supposes) it generates a condensation. This same characteristic causes greater cloudiness to be registered. Mountain peaks, on the other hand, also accelerate wind speed.
In this sense, we can say, therefore, that the orography influences both the amount of rainfall and the cloudiness and even the gusts of wind that can be recorded in a specific place. In this last aspect, it should be stressed that we can even say that there are two types of slopes depending on it: the leeward slopes, which are those that lie behind the winds that dominate, and the windward ones, which are those belonging to mountain ranges or mountains on which the aforementioned winds directly affect.
A curiosity in this regard is that in the place of the world where faster winds have been recorded is on Mount Washington (New England), specifically up to 372 kilometers per hour.