It is known as oligophrenia to one mental type deficiency . This term, according to experts, finds its origin in a word of the Greek language that is translated into Spanish as "Little mind".
Oligophrenic syndrome it is the denomination that, decades ago, allowed to name the pathology characterized by a serious deficiency of the mental area born as a result of the cessation of the progress and progress of the intelligence during the intrauterine stage or in the first years of life (at this point it is contemplated until 18 years of age).
More precisely we can determine that at present there have been studies and investigations that have made it very clear that oligophrenia can basically have six types of causes that cause it to appear:
Those of hereditary type, which are those that reside in a degenerative type gene.
The genetics, which take place as a result of an alteration produced in the digotum.
Phenopathic These causes are what determine that a person suffers from oligophrenia because of diseases of various kinds (toxic, metabolic or infectious) that the mother has suffered.
The blastoforeas, whose starting point is an alteration suffered by the gamete. This alteration can be of many different types: physical, infectious, infectious, toxic, thiophic, cornological ...
Cerebroptics These causes are those that have their origin both in factors of hemolytic type after childbirth as in disturbances of different types or in trauma during birth as well as in meningoencephalitic processes in what are the first years of life of the person .
According to the degree of disability, oligophrenia was divided into four types that have stopped being used because they are considered derogatory and discriminatory: moron (extended to all beings with I.Q under 30, unable to communicate and impossible to educate), fool (those with an IQ below 60 and unable to read and write), hummock (IQ less than 90, unable to specify mental abstractions) and idiot-savant (self-sufficient for manual tasks, but lacking criteria).
Another classification that is made among individuals with oligophrenia distinguishes between not recoverable (who do not develop language), hard to recover (acquire language, but with imperfections) and recoverable or weak mental . The set of the mentally weak can be subdivided, in turn, among those attending the common school and those who come to the teaching differential .
However, another of the most important classifications to talk about oligophrenias is that which divides them into:
Intellectual deficit In this case the person has serious difficulties to elaborate thoughts, associate ideas or solve situations.
Alteration of primary or instinctive behaviors.
Organic disorder Said disorder, whether neurological, morphological or motor, is usually accompanied by the aforementioned intellectual deficit.
Learning problems. These bring with it that the person has very serious problems when carrying out a full social, work and family life.
Affective disorders, which are those that assume that the patient has a very superficial emotion.
Finally, there are authors who distinguish between the concept of oligophrenia and that of Mental retardation . In this way, they limit the use of the notion of oligophrenia to mental retardation arising from pathological or physical reasons (leaving aside the delay developed by the absence of stimulation). In that sense, it must be said that oligophrenia has an organic root that can be genetics , perinatal or postnatal .