He conditioning it's a class of learning through which two events are associated. You can distinguish between two basic types of conditioning: classical conditioning and the operant conditioning .
Classic conditioning, which is also known as responsive conditioning and Pavlovian conditioning , was originally nominated by the Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov . It is a form of associative learning that has its origin in the principles that Aristotle proclaimed in the contiguity law .
This law holds that, when two events usually occur at the same time, each time one appears, the other one comes to mind . This type of conditioning, in this way, takes place when a stimulus that did not generate a response, ends up being linked to another stimulus which, on the other hand, already produced such an answer. Thus the first stimulus, finally, begins to develop the same response.
As for operant conditioning or instrumental This learning modality implies the existence of a reinforcing stimulus that is the contingent consequence to a response that a subject previously issued. This is linked to the implementation of a new behavior, and not to the link between stimuli and pre-existing responses.
It is known as unconditioned stimulus (EI) to those impulses to which we naturally react; that is, to face them we don't need to learn anything, it is unconditional to learning; conditioned stimulus (EC), is that response that can be developed thanks to prior learning; and neutral stimulus (EN), is the one that does not provoke any response.
B.F. Skinner It is the American psychologist who raised the concept of operant conditioning, which refers to the attitude that some animals have to act. It refers to the influence that the environment has on the responses they have to the different stimuli .
It's about the learning theory which tries to discern those behaviors that are new to the organism because it is not genetically programmed.
A reinforcing event It is a reward that is received in exchange for something else, for example in the case of dogs, by offering them a treat if they perform a certain action, they are being shown a reinforcing event that will condition their actions. For its part, a reinforcing stimulus It is an incentive for the environment, which, when applied to the organism, can be apprehended and contribute to an increase in the frequency of the individual's response.
Inside of the operant conditioning There are many ways of learning, these are: reinforcement (the reinforcing stimulus is used to achieve the animal's reaction), by avoidance (aversive methods that the animal can avoid in case of doing what is requested), superstitious (a consequence related to reinforcing or aversive stimuli, get to increase the frequency of the desired behavior), by punishment (The accomplishment of what is requested will be punished in an unpleasant way. Fear is the protagonist of the action) and for I forget (Behaviors that are not treated by any of the above methods, decrease their frequency of occurrence. That is to say that the less importance they are given, the faster they will disappear from the normal behavior of the animal)
Simply put, an operant conditioning consists of a set of stimuli whose purpose is to get the organism that receives them to do a certain thing. According to Skinner, not only animals can learn like this, but also people .
Finally, it should be noted that among the differences that exist between the classical conditioning and operant conditioning , it can be mentioned that, in the second, the association appears between the responses and the effects that they produce. On the other hand, when it comes to classical conditioning, the so-called unconditioned stimulus It has no dependence on the person's response.
Another very important difference is that, in classical conditioning, not voluntary the response issued by the individual. On the other hand, in operant conditioning, it is usually fruit of the will .