The notion of cyanobacteria not part of the dictionary of the Royal Spanish Academy (RAE ).
It is important to know, first, what is the etymological origin of the term at hand. Specifically, we can determine that it is a neologism that made an appearance in the twentieth century. That was formed from the sum of two clearly defined components:
-The Greek word "kianos", which can be translated as "dark blue".
-The Latin noun “bacterium”, which derives from the Greek and is used to define “microorganisms”.
The concept refers to a bacterium that can carry out the oxygenic photosynthesis .
To understand what cyanobacteria are, therefore, we must understand what a bacterium is and what oxygenic photosynthesis consists of. Is called bacterium to a microorganism that has a single cell (it is unicellular ) whose core is not differentiated. The oxygenic photosynthesis , on the other hand, is a type of photosynthesis: the process that allows to synthesize organic substances from inorganic substances, using the energy provided by sunlight. In the specific case of oxygenic photosynthesis, water is the substance that provides electrons and that develops the release of oxygen as a byproduct.
Cyanobacteria constitute an edge within the domain of bacteria . It is the only prokaryotic organisms that develop this kind of photosynthesis . It should be noted that, formerly, these beings were known as cyanophyll algae , cyanophyte algae or blue-green algae . However, when the difference between eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic cells was discovered, the idea of cyanobacteria began to prevail.
The cells Cyanobacteria tend to be larger than the cells of the rest of the bacteria. Its ability to develop oxygen photosynthesis was vital in the evolution of biosphere : With the appearance of cyanobacteria, which take hydrogen from water and release oxygen, the Earth's atmosphere began to populate with this gas. In this way, cyanobacteria contributed to the appearance of aerobic metabolisms.
In addition to all of the above, we cannot ignore another series of important characteristics of cyanobacteria such as the following:
-The habitats preferred by them are those that have dead trunks, where there are barks of trees, where there are wet soils ... Hence the lakes and lagoons are a perfect habitat for them. In spite of that, we cannot ignore that there are others that can be found in oceans.
-Other of its main peculiarities is that they can be found both in places of low temperatures and in others of very high temperatures.
-They move lightly.
- There is the circumstance that there are some cyanobacteria that, when producing toxins, can get to poison the animals that drink the water in which they are found or that reside in their same habitat.
-They reproduce through fragmentation of the filaments.
-With regard to asexual reproduction, we can highlight that it is of a vegetative type.