For the psychology and the sociology , the anomie It is a state that arises when social rules have been degraded or directly eliminated and are no longer respected by members of a community. The concept, therefore, can also refer to the lack of laws . They receive this name all those situations that are characterized by the absence of social norms that restrict them and is also a language disorder which makes it impossible for a person to call things by name.
Anomie is, for social Sciences , a flaw in society that is evident when its institutions and schemes fail to provide some individuals with the essential tools to achieve their goals within their community. This means that anomie explains why certain antisocial behaviors and away from what is considered normal or acceptable.
In medicine For its part, the term is used to express those language disorders that prevent some individuals from calling things by name. The simple explanation given for this disorder is that it is about constantly having the sensation of having words on the tip of the tongue. It receives this name because it is characterized by lacking laws in language norms.
When speaking, we look for each term in a own lexicon in which fifty to one hundred thousand words live together. It is an almost instantaneous but absolutely complex process. We have acquired this capacity through practice and for this we must have the cognitive system always attentive and prepared, however sometimes it fails and that is why we have gaps when we are expressing ourselves, some terms or expressions are seen, etc. Anomie occurs when this difficulty becomes chronic and it is impossible to recover words when speaking; It is common during aging, when brain injuries or degenerative diseases are suffered (Alzheimer's ).
Returning to what the social sciences understand by anomie, we will say that it is a violation of the norms, although not of a law: if a person breaks the law, he incurs a crime . Typically, the lower classes of society are under greater pressure and have a greater propensity to move away from shared social norms.
Anomie, ultimately, creates a problem for rulers since their control mechanisms are not enough to reverse the alienation that reflect the people or groups in this condition.
The main drivers of the concept were sociologists Emile Durkheim and Robert Merton . This last specialist indicates that anomie appears when the objectives of a culture and the possibility of access of some population groups to the necessary means are dissociated. The association between means and ends, therefore, begins to weaken until the breakdown of the social fabric .
According to Emile Durkheim, when a group is extremely united, it develops a certain amount of rules to regulate the behavior and maintain order within it, which establish limits for aspirations and achievements as well as the actions of each individual to provide Some security to the whole. It was not possible for him to think about the social action in an absolutely free way, because without standards there can be no agreements for harmony in a society and guides that collaborate with a linear behavior that is favorable for all the community . Through the expectations of the group, relationships can be updated and shared in a cultural environment.
For his part, Robert K. Merton said that anomie is synonymous with lack of laws and control in a society and its result is a great dissatisfaction with the absence of limits as to what can be desired.