That which alters a flat surface through a depression or elevation is called relief . In this sense, the different forms that can be noticed on Earth at the surface and underwater level are known as Land relief .
The notion of oceanic relief , ocean floor or underwater relief it refers specifically to the forms and accidents found in the background of the oceans . These structures were created from the mobilization of different kinds of sediments and the displacement of tectonic plates.
It is possible to distinguish between different layers and areas of the oceanic relief, which begins when the coast ends. The region closest to the coast is known as Continental platform , since it is a submerged part of the continent . It extends from the beach to about 200 meters deep . After the continental shelf, the oceanic relief continues with the area known as continental slope , which reaches the 4,000 meters deep
In the oceanic relief it is also possible to recognize the abyssal plains (soft slopes or plains located between 2.000 and the 5,500 meters below sea level), the ocean graves (very deep depressions; the deepest is the Mariana Trench , which exceeds 11,000 meters deep) and ocean ridges (mountains that emerge from the ocean floor and that can stand out from the sea as an island).
Specifically, we can determine that
In addition to all of the above, it should not be overlooked that among the ocean trenches, in addition to the Mariana graves, there are others equally significant and important as these:
-The Abyss of Emden, which is situated in the Philippines and has 10,973 meters.
-The Rampao chasm, which has 10,660 meters and is located exactly in the oceanic archipelago of Bonín.
-The abyss of Nero, nestled in the Mariana Islands and identified by its 9,636 meters.
-The Japan Trench, which reaches 9,435 meters.
-Aldrich's abyss, which is 9,427 meters and is located in the Kermadek Islands.
In the same way, we must refer to the Trench of Tonga (9,184 meters) and the Planet chasm (9,148 meters) that is located in the well-known Solomon Islands.
Of course, it is necessary to emphasize other aspects mentioned about the oceanic relief that concerns us and its layers or forms:
-The natural regions, therefore, are the following: continental shelf (0 - 200 meters), batial region (200 - 1,000 meters), abyssal region (1,000 - 5,000 meters), sea graves (5,000 - 11,000 meters) and finally the ocean ridges, which can be up to 3,000 meters high and 1,000 kilometers wide.
-The abyssal region also responds to the name of pelagic zone.
-On the oceanic ridges it is considered that there is a great volcanic and seismic activity.
-The pits where they predominate the most are in the Pacific Ocean.
It is important to highlight that the deepest areas of the oceanic relief have not been explored by the man . It is presumed that in these depths different aquatic organisms coexist.