Is called metabolism to the set of chemical reactions that develop the cells when they are responsible for the degradation or synthesis of different substances. These are multiple procedures that enable the growth, subsistence and reproduction of each cell.
The metabolism contemplates two moments: catabolism and the anabolism . Within the framework of catabolism, energy is released, while in anabolism, energy is used to carry out various actions. Both metabolism processes, therefore, are complementary.
With catabolism, for example, they degrade and oxidize the molecules of food. The energy released is then used in anabolism for the synthesis of complex molecules.
The metabolism is carried out through the so-called Metabolic routes , which are sequences of chemical reactions that make it possible to convert an initial substrate into a final product thanks to the intervention of different enzymes . These routes point to the economization of resources.
It is important to emphasize that the organism, through metabolism, distinguishes between nutrients and those that are toxic. Nutrients are harnessed as Energy , while the toxic ones are discarded.
The synthesis of biomolecules such as lipids , the carbohydrates and the amino acids It is one of the essential functions of metabolism. Many of these biomolecules, on the other hand, interact for the development of macromolecules such as protein and the DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid).
Before the constant changes of the environment, the organism is in charge of the regulation of the reactions of the metabolism to conserve the homeostasis , which is the set of cellular conditions that enable interaction with the environment and the response to stimuli.
Every organism is constantly exposed to chemical elements and compounds that it cannot use to feed and that if they were accumulated in their cells they would be harmful because they would not fulfill a metabolic function. The name they all receive as a group is xenobiotics , where we can find natural poisons, antibiotics and synthetic drugs, whose detoxification is responsible for several metabolizing xenobiotic enzymes.
In our species, the xenobiotic enzymes in question include UDP-glucoronyltransferases, glutathione-s-transferases and cytochrome P450 cytochrome oxidases. The action of this system Enzyme takes place in three phases. It all begins with the oxidation of xenobiotics, continues by the conjugation of water soluble groups and ends by excretion. Before the end of this last stage it is possible for the modified xenobiotic to be extracted from the cell through exocytosis; in the case of multicellular organisms, it can also go through another metabolization process.
These reactions are very relevant in the field of ecology given the microbial biodegradation (also known as biodegradability ) of pollutants and bioremediation of contaminated soil, that is, a process that returns it to its natural state.
The clearance that the liver carries out of the drugs is a very common case of xenobiotic metabolism. It all starts when the product reaches the body, either orally or parenterally, crossing the intestine or traveling through the blood, respectively. When it reaches the liver it goes through two phases of metabolism, mentioned above, after which it happens to be rusty and conjugate , before going to the bile or blood, and being excreted through feces, urine, breathing or other fluids.
The minimum energy value that a cell needs to survive is known as basal metabolism . The cell uses this energy for chemical reactions related to fundamental metabolic functions, such as breathing. There are several factors that influence the basal metabolism: age, weight and sex are some of them.