It is called settlement to the act and the result of settling or settling . East verb On the other hand, it can refer to placing a construction in a place or making something firm or stable.
In general, it is known as settlement to the site where the establishment of a group of individuals . A village and a city , in this framework, they are human settlements. At present, the most common use of the concept is linked to the process that is developed to occupy and populate land.
Formerly, when there were large extensions of land Without inhabitants, migrants often developed settlements. Thus the new towns arose that, little by little, began to grow in places that, until then, were uninhabited.
The idea of settlement is also used to name the occupation that is produced by the force . It is often said that Europeans "Discovered" America and began to develop settlements in the continent after the first trip of Christopher Columbus (1492 ). However, these settlements were created from the conquest by force of land that had long been inhabited by local Aboriginal people.
The degree of violence that this land rapture implied goes far beyond the melee confrontations or physical or material injuries caused by Europeans, since they destroyed cultures and buried them without any consideration or respect for knowledge and beliefs they crushed with their boots. Unfortunately, contempt for aboriginal It is a problem that is still alive today.
Another frequent meaning of settlement is associated with the set of houses that, without legal authorization or planning, is established in a territory. These irregular settlements arise when people In need and without financial resources they do not have access to constituted homes, a situation that forces them to build their houses where they can and with the materials to which they have access. The calls emergency villas , shacks , favelas or cantegriles They are informal settlements.
In the field of civil Engineering there is the concept of soil settlements , which can be defined as mass compression or vertical deformation of the ground. This phenomenon can take place both up and down, and is formed by the following three components:
* immediate settlement : occurs as a result of the deformation soil elastic. This type of settlement can be carried out in dry, humid or saturated soils, without this affecting the humidity of the final result. The most suitable soils for observing this change are granular, and it is based on the fundamentals of the elasticity theory, according to which the linear elastic solids suffer deformations and also linear displacements if they are subjected to small deformations;
* consolidation settlement : This is the change in volume that occurs in saturated cohesive soils as a result of expelling the water contained in their pores. The two types of I usually This group includes clay and saturated clay, with fine gravel, and one of its most important factors is permeability, which must be low. Settlement by consolidation is a deformation that depends on time;
* secondary compression settlement : takes place as a result of the adjustment of the structure of the ground , and then there is no pore compression or effort. In his name the word appears high school to refer to this compression occurring after deformation, which implies a constant effective effort without modification in the amount of water in the pores. This kind of settlement is also time dependent.