Taxonomy It has its origin in a Greek word that means "ordination" . It's about the science of the classification that is applied in the biology for the systematic and hierarchical management of animal and vegetable groups .
Specifically, we can determine that the taxonomy is divided into two: microtaxonomy, which is responsible for defining and describing certain species; and macro-autonomy, which is the one that classifies based on the criteria granted by the previous branch.
It is also important to establish that the taxonomy is very much in relation to what is known by the name of systematics. This can be defined as the science that is responsible for carrying out the study of kinship relationships, also called affinities, that occur between different species.
All this without overlooking the close link between taxonomy and other sciences or issues such as evolution, paleontology, genetics, molecular biology, phylogeny or embryology.
The biological taxonomy It is part of systematic biology, dedicated to the analysis of kinship relationships between organisms. Once the phylogenetic tree of the organism in question is resolved and its evolutionary branches are known, the taxonomy is responsible for studying kinship relations.
In addition to all this, it should be stressed that when working with the taxonomy, developing it and putting it into practice, it is vital to be clear about the different concepts that are fundamental in it. This would be the case of the following:
Character, which comes to refer to the characteristics of the plant, for example.
Character status, that is, the values that the character can acquire.
Diagnostic characters are those that are clearly used to discriminate taxa.
Derived characters They are identified by being dynamic and because they can provide information about the appearance of new lineages. All this can be done by those who are the states that can have a character differently from their ancestor, since they are modified.
There are different positions regarding the taxonomy, although in general it is argued that its function begins when the phylogeny of the taxa. That is why the taxonomy organizes the phylogenetic tree within a system of classification.
The most widespread view understands taxa as clades (branches of the phylogenetic tree, with species related by a common ancestor) that were already assigned to a taxonomic category.
The taxonomy process continues with the assignment of names (according to the principles of the nomenclature), the elaboration of dichotomous identification keys and the creation of classification systems.
The taxa allow to classify living beings from a hierarchy of inclusion (each group includes other minors while being subordinate to a larger one). The fundamental categories, from the most comprehensive to the smallest, are the domain , he kingdom , he edge or division , the class , he order , the family , he gender and the species .
It should be noted that advances in DNA knowledge and biodiversity problems pose great challenges for taxonomy.