Politics is an activity ideologically oriented to the decision-making of a group to achieve certain objectives. It can also be defined as a way of exercise power with the intention of resolving or minimizing the clash between the interests found that occur within a society. The use of the term gained popularity in the 5th century BC, when Aristotle He developed his work entitled "Politics".
The term comes from the Greek word cops, whose meaning refers to the Greek cities that formed the states where the government was partially democratic. It should be noted that it is in this culture that this human need to organize social life and governments since ancient times tries to formalize.
The discipline in charge of studying political activities is called Politic science , professionals in this science receive the nickname of political scientists and people who hold professional positions in charge of the State or aspire to them are defined as politicians.
It is considered that the beginnings of politics go back to the Neolithic, when society begins to organize itself in a hierarchical system and certain individuals acquire power over the rest. Before, the power simply resided in the one with the greatest physical strength or in the most intelligent of a group. Some theorists say that this type of organization could also be considered as a form of politics, so there we would fall into the definition that politics is as old as humanity itself.
The political systems of antiquity were generally absolutist since the totality of power was in the hands of a single subject. In Greece, there were also some cops where a partial democracy was practiced and assemblies were held. From the French Revolution the political scheme underwent an important change, where a fundamental element was the constitution of the United States. From that moment, regimes with democratic characteristics were established, where decision-making responds to the general will.
Democracy is the form of political organization that has become more popular in recent decades, it is based on a state chosen by a majority based on what is stipulated by a Constitution approved by the people, which exercises a partial and organizational power and whose objective is represent the ideas of the people inside and outside the territory. This is so in theory but in practice it is rarely carried out in the desired way, because it is difficult for politicians to put aside their particular interests to ensure those of the entire people.
If we look for the definition of the word in the Dictionary of Social Sciences, we will see that so-called political action and political action can be called that can serve to adject an element related to it, political power, political action, etc. For its part, the DRAE calls it as the art of governing the peoples and the adjectival mentioned above, as something related to politics.
There are multiple aspects of political theories and ideologies, which can be summed up in two large groups: leftist policies (such as socialism and communism), mainly related to social equality, and rightwing policies (such as liberalism and conservatism ), which defend the right to private property and the free market.
For centuries, attempts have been made to explain the concept of politics and the ways in which it must be carried out. Among the most important documents are those of Plato and Aristotle . The first, in his work "The Republic", states that the way in which a people should be governed was through the observation of reality and the testing of idealistic changes and improvements and that such work should be in charge of the wiser beings of that society. For his part, Aristotle, proposed a scientific approach to politics, where social analysis was done taking into account psychological, cultural and social elements and establishing cause and effect relationships. In addition, it expressed the need to create a middle class that would bridge the gap between the richest and the poorest. His work was also called "The Republic."
In 1970 it was Gramsci who, based on the old definitions, tried to give an answer to the true rationale of politics. He explained that the State must be conceived as if it were an organism belonging to the group that it must represent in order to expand it as much as possible but that its development must be contemplated within the expansions of the rest of the nations. He also said that it is reasonable that there is a group that exercises hegemony but that this should not "get out of hand", to the point of achieving a society governed by a system whose only interest is economic-corporate . In this treaty, we can understand that war and violence as a means to achieve the objectives should not be considered as viable.
As well Morin and Kern They have tried to understand it, offering precious treatises on the art and science of politics. They pose it with a multidimensional character that arises from the awareness of citizens and contemplates issues such as the meaning of the life of our species, the development of societies, the economic systems we use, and even life and death. of humanity and the extinction of the planet we inhabit. He tried to address a policy more committed to the environment, a policy of responsibility with our environment. A multidimensional but not totalitarian policy.
Among its proposals to carry out this company, there are: work towards the associative and combat what is dissociative, arguing that emancipation cannot have as its goal the isolation or rupture of pre-existing relationships, but the implementation of a common objective that requires associative work. The second thing he proposes is to look for a particular universality and that special care must be taken to opt for an interest that at first glance seems universal but that encompasses an individual need. Universality can be achieved through a series of actions that are oriented to the protection of our concrete universe, the planet.
It is important to clarify that all theories coincide in one thing, in which political activity can only be realized by establishing legal norms that establish what should or can be done and what not in a given territory.
Other meanings of the political term
Finally we will share some other forms that receive the meaning of this word.
As a set of ideas , convictions or social actions that relate to public or power-related issues. Politics is talked about when referring to a group of rulers and their relationship with the group they govern.
Legally, it is called in three possible ways: as a set of activities developed by one group and that allow the creation, planning and exercise of power over another; as the struggle and opposition that must be carried out by a small group to dominate a larger one; and finally, as an activity whose reason for being is to reach a precise end: the common good (Everything must be carried out with the common objective of achieving peace through methods that do not include violence).
Some policy theories state that it should not be important to resolve how the power-domain relationship but in what ways the integration of the parts of the group can be understood, including even those minorities that in most cases are not taken into account. This means analyzing and understanding each of the relationships that exist between both individual and collective members. In this way, we can fall into a new definition of the word, coming to understand it as the art of integration and not domination , as the vast majority argues.